Here Seham provides links about the rest of the unrest in the region. For her Libya links see here.
Teenager killed and four people wounded in clash with soldiers in southern port of Aden, as protests enter 11th day.
Ali Abdullah Saleh, the Yemen president, offered to oversee dialogue between opposition groups and government officials due to civil unrest throughout the country. The offer came on Sunday after 3,000 university students demonstrated at the Yemeni capital of Sanaa, urging the president to step down from power. Al Jazeera's Hashem Ahelbarra has more from the Yemeni capital.
Yemen's embattled President yesterday sought a way out of the political crisis gripping his impoverished nation, offering to oversee a dialogue between the ruling party and the opposition to defuse the stand-off with protesters demanding that he go.
SANAA, Feb. 20 (Xinhua) -- The Yemeni northern Shiite Houthi-led rebels announced Sunday they would stage rallies in northern Saada province on Monday to press for the resignation of the country's long time president. "Protest demonstrations will be staged on Monday in Saada province to call for overthrowing the regime and to end the corruption and tyranny," the spokesman of the Houthi-led group Mohammed Abdusallam told Xinhua.
On Saturday, Yemeni riot police shot dead a protester and injured at least five as thousands gathered in the capital Sanaa for a ninth day of protests. What are the risks of a political void in this volatile region?
To begin to understand the trajectory of recent political developments in Yemen, it is necessary to cast one’s eye back further than the heady days of 2011. Undoubtedly, events in Egypt and Tunisia have lent considerable force to demonstrations in the capital, Sana’a. However, it would be unfair to the thousands of Yemenis who for years have organized daily protests throughout the country and the thousands who have been killed, imprisoned, injured and tortured by the state to say that the widespread popular organizing against the regime of `Ali `Abdullah Salih had its genesis anywhere but Yemen.
Al Jazeera's correspondent James Bays has the latest from Pearl Roundabout in the capital Manama.
Anti-government demonstrators in Bahrain woke up in their camps in the capital, Manama. Hundreds of people spent the night in the Pearl roundabout after the government ordered the military to withdraw from the area. Al Jazeera's James Bays reports on what is next for the protesters.
MANAMA, Feb 20 (Reuters) - When she learned that the bullet in Ridha Mohammed's skull had left him brain dead, his nurse grabbed a glass-framed picture of Bahrain's prime minister and smashed it on the floor.
The opposition demanded that the king dissolve the government and fire his uncle, the prime minister, before they agree to enter into talks.
Leaders call for political reform but protesters' demands differ after days of demonstrations in the capital, Manama.
Hundreds of protesters gathered outside the Bahraini embassy in Belgravia, London to demand the end of the Al Khalifa dictatorship in Bahrain.
"When the General Strike was announced yesterday, I didn't give it much heed. . . . Teachers, some of them at least, heeded that call. I noticed a few gathering with their Bahraini flags and a couple of hastily written placards standing in front of their school's gate near where I live. I approached them, took some pictures and interviewed one. Wanting to check the other schools in the area, I hit the motherload at the Duraz Intermediate Girls' School nearby -- you'll know what I mean when you view the following video -- and then off I went to the school next door where they were striking too. . . . Is this the start of another 'phenomenon' in Bahrain? One thing is for sure: Bahrain before the 14th of February 2011 is most definitely different from Bahrain after it." -- Mahmood N. Al Yousif
MANAMA, Feb 21 (Reuters) - Shi'ite computer science graduate Mahdi Mohamed tried hard for a government job. "But no call. No reply. Not even a rejection," he said. A Sunni friend from college easily found work. "The other boy has holidays, commissions and allowances. He has an office," said Mohamed. "Do you know what I do? I deliver computers. My car is my office."
Bahrain is not Egypt. Bahrain is not Tunisia. And Bahrain is not Libya or Algeria or Yemen. True, the tens of thousands gathering again yesterday at the Pearl roundabout – most of them Shia but some of them Sunni Muslims – dressed themselves in Bahraini flags, just as the Cairo millions wore Egyptian flags in Tahrir Square.
[This statement was prepared by a coalition of civil society organizations in Bahrain. The original Arabic version can be found here. Translation below is by Khuloud and Ziad Abu-Rish.]
(New York) - Hundreds of stateless residents of Kuwait took to the streets on February 18, 2011, to demand their rights, with dozens seeking treatment for injuries in local hospitals and dozens more detained by state security, Human Rights Watch said today.
Five burned bodies are found in a bank which was set on fire following anti-government protests in Morocco on Sunday, officials say.
(Rabat) - Thousands of Moroccans in cities across the country demonstrated in favor of political reform on February 20, 2011, Human Rights Watch said today. Mostly peaceful demonstrations and marches took place in towns and villages largely without interference from police, who in some areas were barely in evidence.
At least 5,000 demonstrate in Rabat, waving Tunisian and Egyptian flags in recognition of the popular uprisings that overthrew the two countries' presidents.
RABAT: Thousands of protesters took to the streets in Morocco Sunday demanding King Mohammad VI give up some of his powers, dismiss the government and clamp down on corruption. In the capital Rabat, some people in the crowd waved Tunisian and Egyptian flags in recognition of the popular uprisings that overthrew the two countries' presidents.
Morocco Protest Videos
The departure of Tunisian leader Zine El Abidine Ben Ali in January 2011 and Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak’s resignation on February 11 sparked conjectures about Algeria as the next country in the Arab world to attempt to rid itself of authoritarian leadership. While Egyptians have lived under “state of emergency” laws since Mubarak came to power after Sadat’s assassination in 1981, Algeria’s version, also prohibiting any public demonstrations, was enacted in 1992 after the country's first national multiparty elections and runoff set for January 16, 1992 were suspended. A military coup d’etat deposed then President Chadli Benjedid who had ruled since 1979.
One person has been killed and 47 others injured during overnight protests in the northern Iraqi city of Sulaimaniyah, police and hospital officials said.
Reuters - Iraq's parliament has suspended work for a week and sent lawmakers to their home areas to help soothe rising anger over corruption, food shortages and poor services, the speaker of parliament said on Monday.
At least nine Iraqis were killed and 56 more were wounded in new and old violence. Some of the dead were wounded in Thursday's deadly protests in Suleimanya, while the lion's share of today's wounded were injured in protests re-ignited by an attack on an independent television station in the same city last night.
At least 17 Iraqis and an Egyptian resident were killed in the latest attacks, while 33 more were wounded. Although no new demonstrations reported today, last night Grand Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani gave his support to protesters in a strongly worded statement castigating the government for negligence. Also, Parliament Speaker Osama al-Nujaifi reports that two investigative committees are being formed to track down almost $40 billion that has disappeared from the Development Fund for Iraq.
CAIRO, Feb 20 (Reuters) - Around 1,000 Egyptians protested on Sunday in a city east of Cairo after a woman was killed by an army vehicle during a demonstration, eyewitnesses said. The incident marked the latest eruption of public anger in the wake of countrywide protests that began on Jan. 25 and led to the toppling of President Hosni Mubarak.
Egypt has appointed a member of the liberal opposition Wafd party as tourism minister in an unprecedented move, state news agency MENA said late Sunday. Mounir Abdel Nour, Secretary-General of the Wafd party, has accepted the position in Egypt's interim government, MENA said.
The National Association for Change presents a detailed account of how Egypt's transitional period should be managed
CAIRO, Feb 20 (Reuters) - Egypt has released 108 political prisoners, state television reported on Sunday, following a pledge by Prime Minister Ahmed Shafiq. Shafiq was quoted as saying by state news agency MENA on Saturday that 222 prisoners would soon be freed but did not say when. Shafiq had put the number of remaining political prisoners at 487, MENA said.
CAIRO, Feb 21 (Reuters) - Egypt's public prosecutor on Monday told the foreign ministry to seek a freeze on the foreign assets of Hosni Mubarak and his family, the first sign that the former president would be held to account by the military leadership to whom he handed power.
CAIRO, Feb 21 (Reuters) - Egypt's Prime Minister Ahmed Shafiq on Monday ordered that streets be renamed to honour "martyrs" who died during the mass protests that ousted President Hosni Mubarak.
The former president may have gone, but the system that kept him in power is still in place, writes Bahieddin Hassan*
As the calls for regime change move into their third week, Egyptians have broken down the barrier of fear. Cracks between the protesters have started to show, but resolute protesters are standing firm on their call for the president to resign.
On February 16, Roger Ebert, an American film critic and commentator, tweeted: "The attack on Lara Logan brings Middle East attitudes toward women into sad focus." While the attack on CBS News correspondent Lara Logan was a tragic and upsetting event, it needs to be understood in its political context. Any attempt to propound this in such familiar orientalist terms would be offensive and unfair, not only to Egyptians protesting for democracy, but to Logan herself. She was not attacked as a woman--although the gendered nature of the assault is indisputable; she was attacked as a professional journalist and a supporter of the Egyptian protest. I, too, was attacked, probably by the same type of thugs who attacked Logan. I understand both attacks in light of Egypt’s political conditions and the role of the Egyptian women in an ongoing struggle against oppressive and undemocratic government. The heinous attacks mark much more than “attitudes towards women.” Perhaps they mark the desperation of a dying regime.
About Kamal Abbas and the Centre for Trade Unions and Workers Services: Kamal Abbas is General Coordinator of the CTUWS, an umbrella advocacy organization for independent unions in Egypt. The CTUWS, which was awarded the 1999 French Republic's Human Rights Prize, suffered repeated harassment and attack by the Mubarak regime, and played a leading role in its overthrow. Abbas, who witnessed friends killed by the regime during the 1989 Helwan steel strike and was himself arrested and threatened numerous times, has received extensive international recognition for his union and civil society leadership.
Their recent upheaval would certainly have been different, perhaps dramatically different.In the past month, the people of Egypt—inspired by the recent democratic revolution in Tunisia and preceding emergent revolutions in Libya, Algeria, Bahrain, Jordan, Yemen, and Syria—have undertaken a revolt of truly stunning proportions, one that includes men and women from all class strata, religious and ethnic origins, and ideological commitments. They managed to rid themselves of a longstanding and brutal dictator worth over $40 billion and supported by the collective power of the United States, European Union, Israel, and the Arab Gulf States.
Tens of thousands of people defied security forces Sunday to rally in the Tunisian capital calling for a new interim government. It was the second straight day of mass protests in the North African country’s main city, in defiance of a government ban on rallies, after a lull following the popular uprising last month which overthrew President Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali.
Officials have formally requested the extradition of former president from Saudi Arabia, where he fled last month.
Other Revolution/Uprising Related News
RIYADH (AFP) – Admiral Mike Mullen, chairman of the US Joint Chiefs of Staff, said Sunday he was "stunned" by the spread of Arab protests as he arrived in Saudi Arabia on a Gulf tour to boost Washington's ties with regional allies. Mullen's visit comes as an unprecedented wave of revolts challenges Arab authoritarian regimes, notably in Bahrain and Yemen, after uprisings toppled rulers in Tunisia and Egypt. "It's stunning to me that it's moved so quickly," America's highest-ranking military officer said of the revolts. "We've talked about the underlying issues for a long time, but it's the speed with which this is happening," he told reporters.
SANAA, YEMEN - As fresh protests erupted across the Middle East and North Africa on Sunday, embattled leaders in the region struggled to contain their discontented masses, deploying a wide variety of tactics - from offers of dialogue to brutal crackdowns - to suppress the pro-democracy forces unleashed by the revolts in Tunisia and Egypt.
Sudan's President Omar Hassan al-Bashir will not seek re-election, as part of a package of reforms to democratize the country, a senior ruling party official said on Monday.
Jordan's King Abdullah II yesterday called for "quick and real" political reforms to give the public a greater role in governing and to eliminate corruption, favoritism and nepotism.
BEIRUT Arab Leftist groups which convened in Beirut over the weekend declared March 20 as a day of protests against oppression across the Arab world. “Let’s turn March 20 into an Arab day for protesting against the repressive policies and the policies of impoverishment, hunger and dependency adopted by Arab regimes,” said Lebanese Communist Party politburo member Marie Debs at the end of an extraordinary meeting of Arab leftist groups in Beirut. Salah Adli, from Egypt’s Communist Party, called for toppling the Cabinet of Ahmad Shafiq, saying it was reminiscent of the ousted Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak’s regime.
Close friends of Syrian blogger Ahmad Abu al-Khair reported that he was arrested this morning at 5:00 am local time on his way back to Damascus from the coastal city of Banias. Security forces allegedly have also confiscated his personal computers. Currently his whereabouts and the reason behind his arrest are unknown.
DAMASCUS, Feb. 20 (Xinhua) -- The Syrian authorities on Sunday detained three policemen who were accused of beating a citizen in public, local Al-Watan news website reported. The three traffic policemen were accused of insulting and beating Emad Nasab on Thursday at al-Hariqa market in Damascus, according to the report. An anonymous video on a social website showed three policemen quarrelling with a man, while one of them beating him with a stick.
Clinton and Rice encourage reforms and protection of human rights, as violence engulfs Libya and Bahrain.
AFP - Secretary of State Hillary Clinton Sunday highlighted the need for the US government to use Twitter and other social media to connect with young people amid turbulent change in the Middle East and North Africa.
Other Mideast/World News
Gen. Khalilullah Ziayi, police chief of Kunar province, said 15 men, 20 women and 29 children or young adults were killed during operations in Ghazi Abad district in the past four days. The Kunar provincial governor, Fazlullah Wahidi, also said that 64 civilians were killed.
President Hamid Karzai on Sunday accused NATO troops of killing more than 50 civilians in a troubled province of eastern Afghanistan, as international troops pledged to probe the allegations.
BEIRUT: The Israel Navy is finalizing plans which would see it defend its country's disputed oil and gas reserves in the eastern Mediterranean, a popular Israeli tabloid reported Sunday.
Settlers/Land Theft/Ethnic Cleansing
Gaza Minister of Public Works and Housing Yousef al-Mansi condemned approved plans to erect 3,300 homes for Jewish settlers in Jerusalem as announced by Israeli occupation.
The sound of heavy boots stomping up five flights of stairs resonated throughout the entire apartment building on a recent night as the Israeli military headed towards their post on a roof in the embattled neighborhood of Silwan in occupied East Jerusalem. "There may be clashes [between Palestinian youth and Israeli soldiers], but it doesn't mean the army has a right to take over the house," said Abid Abu Ramuz, a Palestinian father of four, as his children quickly moved towards their front door to catch a glimpse of the soldiers.
Armed Jewish settlers last night attacked Palestinian homes in the old city of Al-Khalil, which led to the injury of one citizen and caused material damage in some houses.
Israeli Ministerial Committee for Legislation debated Sunday a bill that would make it nearly impossible for defense chief to impose a freeze on settlement construction, local media reported. According to The Jerusalem Post, the committee discussed the bill that calls to apply Israeli law to Jewish settlements in the West Bank, which are currently subject to military rule. The bill, sponsored by the National Union Party, passed its first reading in the 15th Knesset (Israel's parliament). Later, in the 16th Knesset, it was shelved after its initiators could not garner enough support to push it through the plenum.
Israeli occupation forces (IOF) escorted huge military bulldozers that razed the Palestinian Khirbat Tana village east of Nablus city for the fifth consecutive time, locals reported.
During Friday night riot in east Jerusalem tear gas launcher hit Qawasmeh family home, injured two-month old baby. Police investigating incident.
A Palestinian worker was wounded on Monday morning when Israeli occupation forces (IOF) opened gunfire at him east of Gaza city, medical sources reported.
Israeli police stormed Wadi Hilweh Information Center director Jawad Siyam’s home this morning, 21 February at 10am. The raid was undertaken, police claimed, to ensure that Siyam is complying with conditions of his current house arrest sentence, which he is serving at his home and the Information Center. Officers withdrew from the house after inspecting it and acknowledging that Siyam was in fact not there. According to the conditions of his sentence, Siyam is permitted to leave his home only in the mornings to attend work at the Center. Undercover police and Israeli settlers living in Silwan were observed by family and neighbors in the vicinity of Siyam’s residence this morning. Eyewitnesses, some of whom were also able to photograph police and settlers, commented that “they are clearly trying to aggravate Siyam and his family in the lead up to his next court appearance.”
Murad Khader Joulani has recalled the last moments of his friend, Husam Rwidy’s life, when they were assaulted by a group of right-wing Israeli extremist youths in West Jerusalem on 11 February. The knife attack resulted in the death of Rwidy and severe injury of Joulani. Joulani recalls that on 11 February, the day of the attack, Rwidy and he were approached by two young Israelis on King George Street in West Jerusalem, who asked them if they were Arabs or not. Rwidy and Joulani ignored them, at which point the two youths lashed out at them with an unseensharp implement, clearly identified as a blade. Joulani saw that Rwidy’s face was bleeding from a deep gash between his ears.
On 27 January 2011, a 14-year-old boy was killed by unexploded ordnance in Rafah, occupied Gaza Strip.
The Palestinian ministry of detainees' affairs said that female prisoner Abeer Amro, 33, from Dura village in Al-Khalil city, has entered Sunday her 11th year in Israeli jails.
Siege/Humanitarian Issues/Human Rights
Egyptian officials say emergency laws in the country will be lifted within six months and proposals to amend the constitution are almost ready. Those were some of the demands of pro-democracy campaigners who ousted president Mubarak more than a week ago. With the unrest now over, the country has also reopened its Rafah border to the Gaza Strip. Al Jazeera's Nicole Johnston reports.
The lawyer of Murad al-Banna had his client cleared of all charges. The 19 year old was accused of violence acts against City of David settler guards during clashes that erupted in Silwan after the shooting of two Palestinian residents in September 2009. Al-Banna spent several months in prison when arrested and is currently serving a house arrest sentence. Once released he faces other charges, details of which Silwanic will publish next week. Omar Siyam and al-Banna’s brother Mahmoud are also currently serving house arrest sentences on charges of violence following events that followed the shooting of Wadi Hilweh Popular Committee member Ahmed Qaraeen and Amir Froukh, a child, by a settler in September 2009. Al-Banna’s case is a rare one in Wadi Hilweh, where many youth are serving or have served prison or house arrest sentences, the majority of them on flimsy charges or evidence.
Feb 19, 2011-- The people of Bil’In, along with international supporters and Palestinian political leaders, marked the sixth anniversary of the popular resistance, and entering the seventh year under the slogan "The people demand an end to the division and the occupation.” http://stopthewall.org/photos/2484.shtml
Palestinian tourism minister sends letter to 30 countries invited to conference saying dispatch of official envoys constitutes recognition of Jerusalem as Israel's capital. No cancellations noted yet.
The Popular Struggle Coordination Committee is proud to announce a new campaign, the “Dismantling Impunity Fund”. This fund will directly challenge Israel’s culture of impunity surrounding the murder and maiming of Palestinians. The fund will be managed by a committee that will include representatives of Popular Committees and Palestinian human rights organizations.
[Popular Struggle] The Popular Struggle Coordination Committee is proud to announce a new campaign, the “Dismantling Impunity Fund”. This fund will directly challenge Israel’s culture of impunity surrounding the murder and maiming of Palestinians. The fund will be managed by a committee that will include representatives of Popular Committees and Palestinian human rights organizations.
AFP - The Fatah party of Palestinian president Mahmud Abbas is ready for new talks with the rival Hamas movement over a long-elusive reconciliation, a spokesman said on Sunday.
Deputy Chief of Staff Yair Naveh said the events currently shaking the Arab world 'were ordained from above' by a guiding hand.
Canal officials say ships to pay a fee of $290,000 for the crossing; if ships make the passage, it will mark the first time in three decades that Iranian military ships have traveled the canal that links the Red Sea to the Mediterranean.
Two Iranian naval ships are set to pass through the Suez Canal for the first time since Iran's 1979 Islamic revolution. 'Israel views this Iranian step gravely,' said Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu.
IDF source says that as long as the ships, as expected, stay outside Israel's territorial waters and make no aggressive moves, there will be no confrontation.
EL-ARISH, Egypt (Ma'an) -- Egypt's Ministry of the Interior released a Palestinian prisoner Sunday, two years after he was arrested for work in the Gaza-Egypt smuggling tunnels, police said. The freed man was identified as A’la Bruhum, and was said to have been taken by security forces to the Rafah crossing and deported to Gaza.
Rafael Bublil links Lior Boker's death to his alleged actions against haredim as Hadera police chief 13 years ago. Boker's wife files police complaint against rabbi.
AFP - The Palestinian national football team is to play an international qualifier match on its home turf for the first time ever, Palestinian officials said on Sunday.
The call to oppose the visit to the Tomb of the Patriarchs is a blatant expression of the public's frustration with the galloping takeover by racist and fascist ideas, thought up by right-wing politicians.
Dr. Mustafa Barghouthi, Secretary General of the Palestinian National Initiative confirms that the U.S. position in the Security Council through the use of the veto and the disruption of a draft resolution condemning the settlement confirms the American bias in favor of Israel.
I am not going to recapitulate the debate about Palestine, non-violence, and Gandhi. We have won the arguments and won them decisively, no matter what non-sense the likes of Joseph Dana (sorry Joseph but I did warn you and you didn't listen) is willing to invoke in order to ingratiate himself to his liberal audience in the United States. And yes, the discourse in in for another thrashing. It will be coming along presently. My concern here is a new initiative promoted by Dennis Loh called http://palestiniangandhis.org/. Check it out. Really, go check it out. Here is one of their core principles: "We condemn all violence, especially against civilians." Is this a group that the New York City-based activist community wants to support? I really hope not. Some suggestions. Get your ideas straight. Read Peter Fay, Peter Gelderloos, and Derrick Jensen. Forget the Palestinian Gandhi -- there was no Indian Gandhi. And then while you're "condemning" all forms of violence, be aware that condemning violence carries a corollary, which is the expectation of an alternative: in this case, non-violence. Then go stand next to the people in Bil'in having rocket-propelled tear-gas canisters collapse their chests at their demonstrations. You're not going to do that? Then please send your money to the US Boat to Gaza which has no ridiculous principles condemning Palestinian violence from metropolitan comfort.
On the West Bank, the bigger chunk of a would-be Palestinian state, aging leaders have been pondering how to thwart an eruption by a frustrated people seeking to emulate their Egyptian cousins. Some think they can deflect anger, albeit non-violently, onto Israel. Others have called for elections to all Palestinian governing bodies, including the presidency, the parliament and local councils, within six months.
When Robin Cook tried to tighten rules on British arms sales to dodgy regimes in 1997 he was told by Tony Blair's team to grow up. Planned changes to criteria for weapons exports were so watered down that they made no inroads into the trade. Cook's professed "ethical dimension" to foreign policy was stillborn.
Each time I attend a panel, workshop, forum, conference, symposium, brainstorming session, or congressional session on civil society in the United States, I am disappointed yet optimistic! I am disenchanted because at least since 9/11, the Bush administration as well as the Obama administration has not understood the real dynamics within the Arab and Middle Eastern civil societies. Rather than begging for money from the U.S., civil society actors in this region are asking U.S. policymakers to cease baking the Arab Ceausescus -who kept them in the Dark Age for more than four decades- in order to be able to establish a genuine democracy in the region and enjoy its dividends.
How can you tell that there is a new Arab world and that it won't be pleasant for US and Israel? Notice that the Palestinian questions has suddenly become more important for Arab tyrants and their lackeys. Sa`d Hariri--Hariri for potato's sake--issued a scathing statement criticizing US veto. More significantly, Abu Mazen (head of PA police (non)state received a 50 minute phone call from Obama and yet he did not succumb to pressure from the US to withdraw the resolution before the UNSC. And the defunct Egyptian foreign ministry found time to criticize the US for its veto. It is a new world in which Israel will be more unwelcome than ever--the Zionist entity will get the real political feel of Arab popular rejection for the first time since it was founded atop Palestine.
I find myself intermittently infuriated and nauseated by the news coverage of the sexual assault on a female CBS reporter in Tahrir Square during the celebrations the day that Husni Mubarak resigned. This coverage has ranged from the disappointing silence of Al-Jazeera to the blatant racism of Fox News. What actually happened that day to Lara Logan, chief foreign correspondent for 60 minutes, is not yet known and I have no interest in speculating over the lurid details of a sexual and physical assault, particularly while the victim remains in recovery. In this post, I want to focus on how much of the coverage of this “affair” has revealed the ways in which female bodies are a site that marries Islamophobia to Sexism. This marriage, in turn, reproduces one of the most enduring colonial tropes; the native (and in this case, foreign) woman who needs to be rescued from uncivilized and misogynist men. Cue the- oh so civilized and feminist military invasions and/or occupations of British controlled India, and US controlled Afghanistan and Iraq. In addition to being a discourse that is used to legitimate war, this use of female bodies (and increasingly, gay bodies) as a mark of civilizational status has also been cynically mobilized to continue colonial projects in apartheid South Africa and contemporary Israel.
Lebanese opponents of civil rights for Palestinian Refugees often use
less objective and more crude wording to define "tawtin"
("settlement") than is normally employed in civil society discussions.
During last summer's debate in parliament, which failed to enact laws
that would allow the world's oldest and largest refugee community the
basic civil right to work and to own a home, the "tawtin or return"
discussion took on strident and dark meanings, which were largely
effective in frightening much of the Lebanese public from supporting
even these modest humanitarian measures.